Nutrabio Ribose Powder 500 grams
Benefits of NutraBio Ribose Powder
- Increases muscle and heart energy.
- Improves athletic performance.
- Speeds muscle recovery.
- Increases energy reserves.
- Restores energy levels to improve athletic performance and everyday quality of life!
Ribose is a naturally occurring substance used by every cell in your body to synthesize and rebuild energy. Ribose is the most fundamental building block of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary source of energy for every muscle cell in your body. ATP gives your body the energy it needs to stay healthy, overcome fatigue, and regain the vitality you need to live a normal, active life. That is why ATP is called the energy currency of the cell.
Benefits of supplementing with Ribose
Ribose helps energize your heart and muscles by increasing energy on a cellular level. Aging, strenuous exercise or overexertion, and many metabolic or physiological conditions can drain ATP from your tissue and affect how well your body makes and uses energy. Science has proven that ribose is a necessary ingredient for rebuilding energy in our bodies. So, without ribose we cannot make the energy we need to stay healthy.
Unfortunately, hearts, muscles, and other vital tissues in the body cannot make ribose very quickly, and ribose is not stored in our cells and tissues. That's why supplementing with ribose as directed will help your cells make energy - quickly, safely, and naturally. This means you can feel more energetic, stronger, and healthier every day.
Energy to Power Metabolic Health Wellness:
Like a computer, your body needs energy to keep running. Energy keeps your heart beating, your muscles contracting, and your brain and nervous system carrying the messages that synchronize the functions of life. For the most vital task of making the energy you need, your body produces ribose.
a-D-Ribofuranose (D-ribose, or simply ribose) is a five-carbon monosaccharide that is made in every cell in your body. Ribose stimulates the metabolic pathway used by the body to make a class of compounds called purines and pyrimidines. These compounds are essential for the body's production of many vital constituents, including the genetic material DNA and RNA, and the vital energy compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is called the energy currency of the cell because it gives our bodies the power to function, survive, and thrive. ATP is critical to health and a healthy lifestyle, and ribose is the essential component in the making of ATP in the body.
How to use?
As a dietary supplement, take 5 grams twice daily. Take 30-45 minutes before and after exercise or physical activity. Additional doses may be taken during the activity if the duration of exercise is prolonged (several hours).
WARNING: NOT INTENDED FOR USE BY PERSONS UNDER THE AGE OF 18. KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. If you are pregnant or breast feeding, consult your health care professional before using this product. People with known medical conditions and/or taking drugs should consult with a licensed physician prior to taking. Ribose will temporarily depress blood sugar several points for an hour after ingestion. This is usually sub-clinical. However, it is recommended Ribose be taken with food, juice or around meal time to avoid potential symptoms of hypoglycemia.
Nutrabio ATP Evolution 500 grams
HOW DOES IT WORK?
- Supercharge strength and power output.
- Increase energy levels and endurance.
- Volumize cells and boost muscle size.
- Speed muscle recovery and reduce fatigue.
- Enhance ATP preservation and recovery.
- Maximize creatine storage and muscle uptake.
Super-charge ATP energy levels with Ribose and Creatine!
NutraBio ATP Evolution is a scientifically formulated Creatine-Ribose matrix designed to rapidly replenish ATP stores in muscle tissue. Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP) is the body's energy currency that is required for all cellular functions including muscular contractions, DNA synthesis, and protein synthesis. Additionally, ATP needs to be regenerated at a rapid rate in order for intense exercise to continue without fatiguing prematurely. The synergistic combination of creatine and ribose found in ATP Evolution help saturate and increase normal levels of these compounds found in the body, leading to increased rates of ATP resynthesis and ultimately help keep you training, stronger and longer. Research has shown that creatine and ribose supplementation can:
- Enhance ATP preservation and recovery
- Improve maximal strength
- Supercharge anaerobic power
- Volumize cells and boost muscle size
- Speed muscle recovery and reduce fatigue
- Amplify energy
- Facilitate muscular endurance
- Increase fat free mass
- Help keep you hydrated in extreme outdoor conditions
ATP Evolution's 2-prong approach to increasing ATP levels within muscle in truly revolutionary. First, it uses ribose, a building block of ATP, to increase the amount of ATP within muscle tissue. Second, it saturates the muscle tissue with creatine which helps to recycle ATP at a quicker rate. This 2-prong approach of increasing ATP levels and recycling ATP quicker is the secret to supercharging muscle energy levels. Next let's take a more in depth look at both ingredients that make NutraBio ATP Evolution the most advanced creatine cocktail on the market.
Time tested and research proven, creatine is an amino acid derived compound produced in the body that serves as the primary fuel source (ATP) for short duration, high intensity activities such as sprinting and weight lifting. Creatine is stored primarily in muscle tissue, and it is used for rephosphorylating ADP into ATP. This means that when our muscles use up our energy stores, creatine helps to replenish those stores in a fairly rapid manner.
A Creatine Matrix that supersaturates creatine muscle stores.
As a whole creatine is arguably the most extensively researched and effective supplement available today. Over 500 studies exist of the ergogenic benefits of creatine supplementation with over 70% of these studies producing significant improvements in performance without any detrimental side effects.
Approximately 2 grams of creatine are found in individuals that do not supplement and maintain a diet including animal based proteins. Those who do supplement can increase their body's internal creatine pool by 10 to 40% depending on diet and total lean muscle mass. Due to the fact that our creatine stores are not fully saturated under normal circumstances, supplemental creatine represents a unique opportunity to optimize intracellular reserves, thus promoting an accelerated rate of ATP resynthesis and allowing high intensity work to be sustained for greater durations.
d-Ribose – the Backbone of ATP Replenishment.
Creatine's counterpart in ATP Evolution, ribose, is a naturally occurring sugar that forms the backbone of ATP. During intense exercise, large amounts of ATP are depleted in heart and skeletal muscle cells which can lead to fatigue, lower reps and premature failure in your workouts. Ribose is used by the body to synthesize ATP, nucleic acids, and glycogen and is essential in helping the body restore ATP levels during strenuous exercise.
Unfortunately, there is no food source that increases the body's d-ribose level. However, research shows that supplementing with d-Ribose can boost ATP production in both fast- and slow-twitch muscles by as much as 400%. Research has also shown that supplementing with d-ribose can increase gains maximum total reps by 30% in just 4 weeks as compared to only 7% when not supplementing with d-ribose.
NutraBio's Uncompromising Commitment to Results.
ATP Evolution represents a commitment to quality NutraBio made when we opened our doors 20 years ago. This commitment involves using only the highest quality ingredients backed by research, effective clinical doses, and no proprietary blends, fillers, excipients or other potentially unhealthy or unneeded additives. Although the industry makes it seems like this is a new trend; the fact is NutraBio pioneered these concepts well over a decade ago. For us, it has never been a question of when a good time to start being honest is. We have always been the innovators, not the imitators.
This innovation is reflected in what we believe is the most advanced creatine formula on the market today. ATP Evolution is a pure, effective supplement that combines the ergogenic benefits of creatine in combination with the energy boosting effects of ribose in order to accelerate ATP resynthesis. The result is explosive workouts, quick gains in muscle strength and size, and shorter recovery periods.
CREATINE MONOHYDRATE (3500 mg) & CREATINE MAGNAPOWER (3500 mg)
- Creatine is an amino acid (broken down protein) derived compound produced in the body that serves as the primary fuel source (ATP) for short duration, high intensity activities such as sprinting and weight lifting. Creatine is stored primarily in muscle tissue, and it is used for rephosphorylating ADP into ATP. This means that when our muscles use up our energy stores, creatine helps to replenish those stores in a fairly rapid manner. Approximately 2 grams of creatine are found in individuals that do not supplement and maintain a diet including animal based proteins. Those who do supplement can increase their body's internal creatine pool by 10 to 40% depending on diet and total lean muscle mass.
- As a whole creatine is arguably the most extensively researched and effective supplement available today. Over 500 studies exist of the ergogenic benefits of creatine supplementation with over 70% of these studies producing significant improvements in performance without any detrimental side effects.
- Creatine has been proven to increase lean muscle mass, maximal strength, power, and muscular endurance.
- Creatine may also help keep you hydrated in extreme outdoor conditions
- Emerging research suggest creatine may provide cognitive and overall brain health benefits.
- Creatine MagnaPower (magnesium creatine chelate) is more soluble than creatine monohydrate and in theory should absorb better; requiring a lower dose to achieve the same ergogenic benefits as creatine monohydrate. This form of creatine can also protect the creatine from destruction in the digestive tract and make higher quantities of the physiologically active form of creatine available to the muscle cells.
- The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.
RIBOSE (5000 MG)
- Ribose is a natural sugar that supports energy production, mitochondrial function, and decreases fatigue.
- It is needed to form certain vitamins, DNA and RNA, and most importantly adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
- Ribose helps recoup lost energy and may minimize the negative physiological consequences of energy depletion from intense exercise.
- In a four-week study involving recreational body builders, ribose was given to determine its effect on body composition and exercise performance. While there was no difference in pre/post exercise body composition between the ribose and placebo groups, the ribose group showed significantly greater gains in both muscle strength and endurance. Ribose supplementation has also been shown to increase exercise tolerance and performance with decreased muscle stiffness, pain, and fatigue.
Q. What is the best way to take ATP Evolution?
A. Mix one serving of ATP Evolution into at least 16 ounces of water or your favorite beverage and drink within 15 minutes. Consume one to two servings per day. For best results, use this product as part of a proper diet and exercise program.
Q. I heard that creatine can cause kidney problems and cause cramping. Is that true?
A. Absolutely not. Creatine is the most studied and effective supplement ever…period. Over 500 studies have been done on creatine and nonehave been shown to cause any adverse side effects. However, you should expect to see big improvement in strength, power, and endurance after taking creatine?
Q. Are there any downsides to supplementing with creatine?
A. If you consider it a downside, creatine supplementation can lead to weight gain in the form of higher water retention and increases in lean muscle mass. To avoid this and still get the ergogenic benefits of creatine take .03 grams per kilogram body weight daily instead of the 5 gram recommended dose.
Q. What's the deal with magnesium creatine chelate? I heard nothing is as good creatine monohydrate.
A. While there is no doubt various other forms of creatine are more of marketing gimmic than anything else; magnesium creatine chelate has been directly compared to creatine monohydrate in scientific research and has shown to be at least as effective as equivalent doses of monohydrate, and potentially more effective at increasing intracellular water concentrations.
Q. What is ATP again and what does it do?
A. Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP) is the body's energy currency that is required for all cellular functions including muscular contractions, DNA synthesis, and protein synthesis. Additionally, ATP needs to be regenerated at a rapid rate in order for intense exercise to continue without fatiguing prematurely. Without ATP life is not possible
Nutrabio PRE EXTREME pre-workout
ADVANCED CLUSTER DEXTRIN–INFUSED PRE–WORKOUT
HOW DOES PRE-EXTREME WORK?
- Builds explosiveness, power, and strength†
- Includes 15G of Cluster Dextrin®
- Enhances endurance and increases reps†
- Accelerates performance and recovery†
- Supercharges mental focus and acuity†
- No proprietary blends and full label disclosure.
- 15G Cluster Dextrin
- 3.2G Beta-Alanine
- 1650MG Stimulant Complex
NutraBio PRE Extreme is the hardcore and ultra-high stim version of our original PRE formula. On top of the time tested and research proven ingredient profile already found in PRE; we added 15,000 mg of Cluster Dextrin and 4 mg of Yohimbe to PRE Extreme in order to rapidly supply working muscles with fuel (glycogen) and take your energy and focus to the next level. This potent combination makes PRE Extreme the most advanced, most intense, and hardest hitting pre-workout on the market today that will allow you to push your limits further than ever before. PRE Extreme is built upon clinically dosed and scientifically backed ingredients proven to maximize workout performance and produce results. Athletes of all levels realize that in order achieve the most effective training session that energy, strength, endurance, and focus are a must. A complete pre-workout supplement should support all of these benefits. The synergistic combination of ingredients found in PRE Extreme help prepare your body physiologically and psychologically by amplifying energy, enhancing the mind-muscle connection, and supporting increases in muscular strength, power, and endurance. From top to bottom PRE Extreme will help keep you training stronger and longer. Take a deeper look into PRE Extreme and you will find:
- Clinical doses of 21 research-backed ingredients
- 15,000 mg of highly branched cyclic dextrin to rapidly fuel muscles with steady state glycogen to enhance performance
- 350mg combined of caffeine anhydrous and Infinergy Di-Caffeine Malate to boost energy, increase focus, and provide greater training intensity. All without a caffeine crash.
- 4 mg of Yohimbe HCL to increase adrenaline levels in the body and increase fat burning.
- 2500mg of Carnosyn Beta-Alanine to increase endurance and help counteract fatigue caused by hydrogen ion accumulation.
- 2000mg of Pharmapure creatine monohydrate for greater strength, power, and muscle growth.
- 3500mg of L-Leucine to help prevent muscle catabolism and lessen recovery time between sessions.
- 300mg of Theapure L-Theanine. When combined with caffeine promotes enhanced cognition and attention.
- 100mcg of Huperzine A to promote a strong mind-muscle connection and supercharge mental focus.
- 2500mg of betaine anhydrous to support creatine production, increase power and strength output, and protect cells from dehydration.
- 1000mg of Agmatine sulfate and 750mg Nitrosigine to stimulate nitric oxide pathways leading to greater vasodilation and bigger muscle pumps.
- 2214mg electrolyte and hydration optimizer that helps maintain water balance in the muscle, facilitates motor neuron function, and increase exercise capacity.
- 5mg of Bioperine black pepper extract to enhance absorption of the active ingredients in PRE.
- L-Citrulline (6000mg) – Increases nitric oxide production, reduces fatigue, and improves endurance
Since day one NutraBio has never been happy maintaining the status quo when it comes to pre-workouts. We have always been the innovators; not the replicators. Although the industry makes it seems like non-proprietary blends, proper dosing, and scientifically backed ingredients are something new; the fact is NutraBio pioneered this trend over 15 years ago. We focused on creating the best, and we've done just that with PRE Extreme. PRE Extreme has everything you need in one comprehensive, open label, clinically dosed formula and nothing you don't. We pride ourselves on purity. What you see on the label is exactly what you get. PRE Extreme contains no fillers, excipients, proprietary blends, or other potentially unhealthy or unneeded additives.
At the end of the day, NutraBio isn't just about marketing hype and trying to maximize our profit. It's all about giving athletes what they want to meet their performance needs by giving them access to clean supplements that are innovative and effective. Like you, we want to train hard and see the results of our efforts. Compare NutraBio PRE Extreme to any other so called "hard core" pre-workout on the market and ask yourself whose formula was created WITHOUT COMPROMISE. We think you'll find that even the most self-proclaimed strongest formulated pre-workouts pale in comparison to PRE Extreme.
Game over. NutraBio PRE Extreme dominates the pre-workout landscape.
A closer look at the 21 ingredients and doses used to make NutraBio PRE Extreme the most hardcore pre-workout on the market
RAPID GLYCOGEN PRE-LOAD SYSTEM (15,000 mg)
HIGHLY BRANCHED CYCLIC DEXTRIN (AS CLUSTER DEXTRIN) (15,000 MG)
- Cyclic Dextrin is a clinically studied carbohydrate that is rapidly absorbed and provides fuel (glycogen) to working muscles.
- Cluster Dextrin is highly soluble and promotes fast gastric emptying times; virtually eliminating any gastric distress often associated with less advanced carbohydrates.
- Cluster Dextrin maintains a slow release, offering the ideal interaction between carbohydrate breakdown and the normal release of free fatty acids. The result: superior carbohydrate absorption and superior endurance.
- In 2013 human clinical trials of Cluster Dextrin, 24 adult male athletes showed that during cycling exercise, the group administered 15 grams of Cluster Dextrin performed better than those who took the same amount of a maltodextrin.
- Unlike other formulations using Cluster Dextrin that have dextrose or maltodextrin hidden in the "other ingredients," NutraBio uses only pure Cluster Dextrin
ATHLETIC ENDURANCE & PERFORMANCE COMPLEX (8500 mg)
- L-Citrulline is an amino acid that plays an important role in nitric oxide metabolism and regulation.
- It is converted to L-Arginine in the body to support L-Arginine and nitric oxide levels.
- Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) promotes vascular dilation which improves oxygen and blood circulation throughout the body.
- L-Citrulline is also expected to relieve muscle fatigue through ammonia elimination.
- A 2015 study conducted by Bailey et al. found subjects who supplemented with 6000mg L-Citrulline for 7 days were able to improve oxygen uptake and performance during high-intensity exercise.
BETA ALANINE (AS CARNOSYN) (3200 mg)
- Beta-alanine (BA) is a version of the amino acid alanine which serves as the precursor to carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) in skeletal muscle. Supplementing with BA is a highly effective means of increasing muscle carnosine content. Increased muscle carnosine helps buffer the negative side effects of hydrogen ion accumulation in muscles as exercise intensity increases.
- Beta-Alanine supplementation has been linked to improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue at higher intensities in both trained and untrained individuals in events lasting 1-4 minutes.
- Increases in lean muscle mass and muscular endurance have also been noted with supplementation.
- A recent meta-analysis confirmed the ergogenic effect of beta-alanine, showing a 2.85% increase in exercise performance compared to placebo when dosed at ~2/grams daily.
ATP POWER, STRENGTH, & RECOVERY COMPLEX (9000 mg)
L-LEUCINE (3500 mg)
- Leucine is one of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAA). By itself it can stimulate muscle protein synthesis; the process responsible for muscle growth and recovery. This is why it is often referred to as the "main" amino acid.
- Supplementation with at least 2/grams daily leucine has been shown decrease muscle soreness, lessen recovery time between workouts, and increase lean muscle mass.
- Howatson et al. (2012) discovered that leucine (combined with isoleucine and valine) administered before muscle damaging resistance exercises reduced indices of muscle damage and accelerated recovery in resistance trained males.
- NutraBio's leucine is derived from fermented vegetables sources as opposed to animal based sources.
BETAINE ANHYDROUS (2500 mg)
- Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaine's two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte. As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.
- Doses of 2500-6000mg betaine daily may increase muscular strength, endurance, and total training volume.
- Betaine also plays a role in hepatic fat metabolism, promoting muscle protein synthesis, and has been suggested to increase nitric oxide levels.
- A study conducted by the University of Connecticut found that individuals supplementing with 1.25 grams of betaine twice/daily increased bench press power 20%.
ELECTROLYTE & HYDRATION OPTIMIZER (2214 mg)
TAURINE (1500 mg)
- Taurine is one of the most important, useful, and safest amino acids. Taurine is best known for its beneficial effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Early clinical research also suggests that taurine, in combination with caffeine, can produce improvements in mental performance. When the body engages in extreme physical activity, it no longer will be able to produce the necessary amounts of taurine, therefore supplementation becomes necessary.
- Taurine is involved in the regulation of core body temperature and may help prevent heat stress and stroke.
- Taurine is also acts is an osmolyte; assisting the body in maintaining proper water balance.
- Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.
CALCIUM POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE CITRATE (AS CALCI-K) (525 mg) & SODIUM PHOSPHATE (189mg)
- Calcium, potassium, and phosphorus are vital electrolytes needed to maintain bodily water balance and facilitate motor neuron function.
- The combination of these electrolytes in CALCI-K are highly soluble and readily absorbed by the body.
- Electrolytes have been shown to prevent muscle cramps and are essential to normal muscular contractions.
- As we exercise electrolytes are lost through sweat and must be replaced in order to prevent decreases in performance
- Sims et al. (2007) discovered that pre-exercise ingestion of a high-sodium beverage increased plasma volume before exercise and involved less thermoregulatory and perceived strain during exercise and increased exercise capacity in warm conditions.
FOCUS, DRIVE, & STIMULATION COMPLEX (1954 mg)
N-ACETYL-L-TYROSINE (1200 mg)
- Tyrosine is an essential amino acid whose primary role in the body is as the direct precursor to thyroxine and to the hormones dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
- Tyrosine may improve both endurance and anaerobic performance via metabolic and/or neurotransmitter upregulation.
- Tyrosine also improves mental acuity, focus, and mood by increasing levels of catecholamines found in the bloodstream.
- A study done at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory reported that a dose of L-Tyrosine, when provided to sleep deprived subjects, ameliorated psychomotor performance declines associated with mental fatigue.
CAFFEINE (250 mg) and INFINERGY (100 mg DI-CAFFEINE MALATE) (350 mg total caffeine)
- Caffeine, like creatine, it one of the most studied and proven ergogenic (performance enhancing) aids. Although caffeine can affect a wide variety of motor and mental functions it is most commonly used to improve endurance exercise, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels. Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
- Dicaffeine Malate, as the name implies, is the combination of caffeine and malic acid. Adding malic acid to caffeine is thought to calm the digestive effects of caffeine and thought to replenish the energy produced by caffeine (either through increased fat oxidation or ATP production). Malic acid may also weaken the feeling of a caffeine crash and slow tolerance development to caffeine.
- According to the research higher doses of caffeine, in the 250-450mg range, are needed to provide an ergogenic benefit.
- The ISSN position stand on caffeine concluded:
- Caffeine can act to enhance alertness and vigilance during times of exhaustive exercise that requires sustained focus.
- Caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for sustained maximal endurance activity, and has also been shown to be very effective for enhancing time trial performance.
- Caffeine can enhance, not inhibit, glycogen resynthesis during the recovery phase of exercise.
- Caffeine is beneficial for high-intensity exercise of prolonged duration
THEAPURE (L-THEANINE) (300 mg)
- L-Theanine is an amino acid, that when consumed produces GABA and glutamate, two neurotransmitters that act on the brain to reduce the perception stress.
- Research suggests that L-Theanine's biggest supplemental role may be in taking the "edge" off of other stimulants.
- A combination of L-Theanine with caffeine is noted to be synergistic in promoting cognition and attention.
- Giesbrecht et al. found the combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching, self-reported alertness, and reduced self-reported tiredness.
YOHIMBINE HCL (4 mg)
- Yohimbe is an alkaloid that is considered a general stimulant that works by increasing adrenaline levels in the body.
- In some cases Yohimbe increases blood vessel dilation which may enhance energy levels during workouts.
- Increases in cognitive performance have also been noted in those supplementing with Yohimbe.
- Yohimbe also may act as a fat burning compound by acting upon the adrenergic receptor system of fat cells, which regulate thermogenesis.
- A study conducted by Ostojic (2006) found elite male soccer players who supplemented with Yohimbe for 21 days reduced average body fat levels from 9.3% to 7.1%
HUPERZINE A (100 mcg)
- Huperizine A is a selective inhibitor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which means it prevents the breakdown and increases the amount of acetylcholine; an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system involved in cognition and muscular contractions.
- Multiple studies have shown that supplementation with Huperzine-A can enhance focus, memory and mood.
- A study conducted by Sun et al. (1999) reported that subjects who supplemented with Huperzine A for 4 weeks improved learning performance and memort compared to a placebo group.
NITRIC OXIDE PERFORMANCE MATRIX (1750 mg)
AGMATINE SULFATE (1000 mg)
- Agmatine Sulfate is a byproduct of Arginine through decarboxylation. It produces other byproducts that are involved in cell growth, structural and metabolic support to the nervous system.
- Decarboxylated arginine cannot be broken down in the liver and consequently increases blood flow to working muscles through vasodilation.
- Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.
- PRE uses a vegan source of agmatine that us derived from fermented plants.
INOSITOL ARGININE SILICATE (AS NITROSIGINE) (750 mg)
- Nitrosigine is a bonded complex of arginine and silicon that helps enhance nitric oxide levels to a greater degree compared to arginine alone.
- Increased nitric oxide levels promote the relaxation of smooth muscle in blood vessels, increasing blood flow to working muscles.
- In pre-clinical studies nitrosigine was found to be more biologically active than arginine chloride. The research also showed enhanced blood flow during and after exercise which may help with muscle growth and recovery.
NUTRIENT ABSORPTION ENHANCER (5 mg)
PIPER NIGRUM EXTRACT (AS BIOPERINE)
- BioPerine is a patented extract of the fruit of black pepper that contains standardized amounts of the active ingredient piperine.
- Numerous clinical studies suggest that when a 5 mg dose of BioPerine is taken with other supplements, it increases the absorption of those supplements by 30 to 2,000 percent.
- In sum BioPerine significantly enhances the bioavailability of various supplement nutrients through increased absorption
- At NutraBio, we like to call this "bioavailability insurance" for our highly technical formulations that rely on extremely pure and refined ingredients.
Q. What is the best way to take PRE Extreme?
A. Mix one heaping scoop of PRE into 12-14 ounces of water and consume 30-45 minutes prior to training.
Q. Why does PRE Extreme contain carbohydrates? I heard carbs are bad for you.
A. Believe it or not carbs (glucose/glycogen in the body) are the preferred fuel source for muscles; especially during anaerobic activities such as strength training. Without them fatigue sets in and workouts end prematurely. We have found PRE Extreme to be very effective for those individuals who work out first thing in the morning on an empty stomach and in a glycogen depleted state.
Q. Can I take PRE Extreme with other stimulants (i.e. coffee, fat burners)?
A. We don't recommend taking other stimulants with PRE Extreme due to the efficacious doses of stimulants already found in the product.
Q. I see PRE Extreme has 350mg of caffeine. Is that amount safe?
A. Generally speaking, yes. A large review by the European Food Safety Authority concluded that a daily safe dose of 400mg is safe for adults. We suggest not taking any other stimulants (like coffee) on the days you take PRE. We also recommend starting with a half scoop to assess your tolerance before moving on to a full scoop.
Q. I heard creatine can cause kidney problems and cause cramping. Is that true?
A. Absolutely not. Creatine is the most studied and effective supplement ever…period. Over 500 studies have been done on creatine and none have shown to cause any adverse side effects. However, you should expect to see big improvements in strength, power, and endurance after taking creatine.
Q. What makes PRE Extreme better than other pre-workouts?
A. A lot of other pre-workouts use ingredients that are ineffective or not properly dosed. All the ingredient in PRE Extreme are research backed and dosed efficaciously based on the current scientific literature.
- Takii, H., KOMETANI, T., NISHIMURA, T., KURIKI, T., & FUSHIKI, T. (2004). A sports drink based on highly branched cyclic dextrin generates few gastrointestinal disorders in untrained men during bicycle exercise. Food science and technology research, 10(4), 428-431.
- Kometani T, Takii H, Shiraki T, Nomura T. Endurance enhancing effect of cyclic cluster dextrin. FOOD Style21. 2003;7:62–65.
- Takii, H., Takii, N. Y., Kometani, T., Nishimura, T., Nakae, T., Kuriki, T., & Fushiki, T. (2005). Fluids containing a highly branched cyclic dextrin influence the gastric emptying rate. International journal of sports medicine,26(4), 314-319.
- Furuyashiki, T., Tanimoto, H., Yokoyama, Y., Kitaura, Y., Kuriki, T., & Shimomura, Y. (2014). Effects of ingesting highly branched cyclic dextrin during endurance exercise on rating of perceived exertion and blood components associated with energy metabolism. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 78(12), 2117-2119.
- Takii, H., Ishihara, K., Kometani, T., Okada, S., & Fushiki, T. (1999). Enhancement of swimming endurance in mice by highly branched cyclic dextrin. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 63(12), 2045-2052.
- Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
- Hickner, R. C., Tanner, C. J., Evans, C. A., Clark, P. D., Haddock, A., Fortune, C., ... & Mccammon, M. (2006). L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 660-666.
- Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
- Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.
- Hobson, R. M., Saunders, B., Ball, G., Harris, R. C., & Sale, C. (2012). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino acids, 43(1), 25-37.
- Stout, J. R., Cramer, J. T., Zoeller, R. F., Torok, D., Costa, P., Hoffman, J. R., ... & O'kroy, J. (2007). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino acids,32(3), 381-386.
- Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 1-9.
- Baguet, A., Bourgois, J., Vanhee, L., Achten, E., & Derave, W. (2010). Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(4), 1096-1101.
- Trexler, E. T., Smith-Ryan, A. E., Stout, J. R., Hoffman, J. R., Wilborn, C. D., Sale, C., ... & Campbell, B. (2015). International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 1-14.
- Norton, L. E., & Layman, D. K. (2006). Leucine regulates translation initiation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after exercise. The Journal of nutrition, 136(2), 533S-537S.
- Shimomura, Y., Inaguma, A., Watanabe, S., Yamamoto, Y., Muramatsu, Y., Bajotto, G., ... & Mawatari, K. (2010). Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness.International journal of sport nutrition, 20(3), 236.
- Nicastro, H., Artioli, G. G., dos Santos Costa, A., Solis, M. Y., Da Luz, C. R., Blachier, F., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2011). An overview of the therapeutic effects of leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle under atrophic conditions. Amino Acids, 40(2), 287-300.
- Howatson, G., Hoad, M., Goodall, S., Tallent, J., Bell, P. G., & French, D. N. (2012). Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 9(1), 20.
- Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., ... & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise.European journal of applied physiology, 113(3), 793-802.
- Trepanowski, J. F., Farney, T. M., Mccarthy, C. G., Schilling, B. K., Craig, S. A., & Bloomer, R. J. (2011). The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3461-3471.
- Lee, E. C., Maresh, C. M., Kraemer, W. J., Yamamoto, L. M., Hatfield, D. L., Bailey, B. L., ... & Craig, S. A. (2010). Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr,7(1), 27.
- Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Gonzalez, A. M., Beller, N. A., & Craig, S. A. (2011). Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2235-2241.
- Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., ... & Paolone, V. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc. Sports Nutr, 10(1), 39.
- Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, Greenwood M, Campbell B, Spano M, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Antonio J: International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2007, 4:6.
- Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL: The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta physiologica Scandinavica 1995, 153:207-209.
- Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinardy J, Cantler E, Almada AL: Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1998, 30:73-82.
- Lopez, R. M., Casa, D. J., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S., Armstrong, L. E., & Maresh, C. M. (2009). Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. Journal of athletic training, 44(2), 215-223.
- Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Mueller, K. D., & Lewis, J. D. (2011). Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1831-1838.
- McConell, G. K., Shinewell, J., Stephens, T. J., Stathis, C. G., Canny, B. J., & Snow, R. J. (2005). Creatine supplementation reduces muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(12), 2054.
- Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., & Bates, T. C. (2003). Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double–blind, placebo–controlled, cross–over trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 270(1529), 2147-2150.
- Zhang, M., Izumi, I., Kagamimori, S., Sokejima, S., Yamagami, T., Liu, Z., & Qi, B. (2004). Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino acids, 26(2), 203-207.
- BOUCHAMA, A., YUSUF, A., AL-SEDAIRY, S. U. L. T. A. N., & EL-YAZIGI, A. D. N. A. N. (1993). Alteration of taurine homeostasis in acute heatstroke.Critical care medicine, 21(4), 551-554.
- Gwacham, N., & Wagner, D. R. (2012). Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22(2), 109-116.
- Warskulat, U., Brookmann, S., Felsner, I., Brenden, H., Grether‐Beck, S., & Häussinger, D. (2008). Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human dermal fibroblasts. Experimental dermatology, 17(12), 1031-1036.
- Convertino, V. A., Armstrong, L. E., Coyle, E. F., Mack, G. W., Sawka, M. N., Senay, L. C., & Sherman, W. M. (1996). Acsm position stand: Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28.
- Casa, D. J., Armstrong, L. E., Hillman, S. K., Montain, S. J., Reiff, R. V., Rich, B. S., ... & Stone, J. A. (2000). National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: fluid replacement for athletes. Journal of athletic training,35(2), 212.
- Sims, S. T., van VLIET, L. I. N. D. A., Cotter, J., & Rehrer, N. (2007). Sodium loading aids fluid balance and reduces physiological strain of trained men exercising in the heat. Medicine and science in sports and exercise,39(1), 123.
- Deijen, J. B., Wientjes, C. J. E., Vullinghs, H. F. M., Cloin, P. A., & Langefeld, J. J. (1999). Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. Brain research bulletin, 48(2), 203-209.
- Banderet, L. E., & Lieberman, H. R. (1989). Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain research bulletin, 22(4), 759-762.
- Neri, D. F., Wiegmann, D., Stanny, R. R., Shappell, S. A., McCardie, A., & McKay, D. L. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.
- Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., ... & Wildman, R. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 7(1), 5.
- Spriet, L. L. (1995). Caffeine and performance. International journal of sport nutrition, 5, S84-S84.
- Beck, T. W., Housh, T. J., Schmidt, R. J., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., Coburn, J. W., & Malek, M. H. (2006). The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(3), 506-510.
- McLellan, T. M., Kamimori, G. H., Voss, D. M., Tate, C., & Smith, S. J. (2007). Caffeine effects on physical and cognitive performance during sustained operations. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 78(9), 871-877.
- Lieberman, H. R., Tharion, W. J., Shukitt-Hale, B., Speckman, K. L., & Tulley, R. (2002). Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during US Navy SEAL training. Psychopharmacology, 164(3), 250-261.
- Costill, D. L., Dalsky, G. P., & Fink, W. J. (1977). Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and science in sports, 10(3), 155-158.
- Kovacs, E. M., Stegen, J. H., & Brouns, F. (1998). Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and Performance. Journal of Applied physiology, 85(2), 709-715.
- Park, S. K., Jung, I. C., Lee, W. K., Lee, Y. S., Park, H. K., Go, H. J., ... & Rho, S. S. (2011). A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Journal of medicinal food, 14(4), 334-343.
- Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutritional neuroscience, 11(4), 193-198.
- Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft, J. A., Rowson, M. J., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional neuroscience, 13(6), 283-290.
- Tyrosine metabolism – Reference pathway, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)
- Chen-Izu Y, Xiao RP, Izu LT, Cheng H, Kuschel M, Spurgeon H, Lakatta EG (November 2000). G(i)-dependent localization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor signaling to L-type Ca(2+) channels". Biophys. J. 79 (5): 2547–56.
- Large V, Hellström L, Reynisdottir S, et al. (December 1997). Human beta-2 adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms are highly frequent in obesity and associate with altered adipocyte beta-2 adrenoceptor function.
- Tsutsumi, E.; Kanai, S.; Ohta, M.; Suwa, Y.; Miyasaka, K. (2010). Stimulatory effect of N-methyltyramine, a congener of beer, on pancreatic secretion in conscious rats. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 34 (Suppl 1): S14–S17
- Barwell, C. J., Basma, A. N., Lafi, M. A. K., & Leake, L. D. (1989). Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 41(6), 421-423.
- Hapke, HJ, Strathmann, W. (1995). Pharmacological effects of Hordenine. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1995 Jun;102(6):228-32.
- Frank, M., Weckman, T. J., Wood, T., Woods, W. E., TAI, C. L., CHANG, S. L., ... & Tobin, T. (1990). Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse. Equine veterinary journal, 22(6), 437-441.
- Ostojic, S. M. (2006). Yohimbine: the effects on body composition and exercise performance in soccer players. Research in Sports Medicine, 14(4), 289-299.
- MURBURG, M. M., VILLACRES, E. C., KO, G. N., & VEITH, R. C. (1991). Effects of Yohimbine on Human Sympathetic Nervous System Function.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 73(4), 861-865.
- Waluga, M., Janusz, M., Karpel, E., Hartleb, M., & Nowak, A. (1998). Cardiovascular effects of ephedrine, caffeine and yohimbine measured by thoracic electrical bioimpedance in obese women. Clinical Physiology, 18(1), 69-76.
- Galitzky, J., Taouis, M., Berlan, M., Riviere, D., Garrigues, M., & Lafontan, M. (1988). α2‐Antagonist compounds and lipid mobilization: evidence for a lipid mobilizing effect of oral yohimbine in healthy male volunteers. European journal of clinical investigation, 18(6), 587-594.
- Xiao, X. Q., Yang, J. W., & Tang, X. C. (1999). Huperzine A protects rat pheochromocytoma cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury.Neuroscience letters, 275(2), 73-76.
- Malkova, L., Kozikowski, A. P., & Gale, K. (2011). The effects of huperzine A and IDRA 21 on visual recognition memory in young macaques.Neuropharmacology, 60(7), 1262-1268.
- Kitisripanya, N., Saparpakorn, P., Wolschann, P., & Hannongbua, S. (2011). Binding of huperzine A and galanthamine to acetylcholinesterase, based on ONIOM method. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine,7(1), 60-68.
- Sun, Q. Q., Xu, S. S., Pan, J. L., Guo, H. M., & Cao, W. Q. (1999). Huperzine-A capsules enhance memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of matched adolescent students. Zhongguo yao li xue bao= Acta pharmacologica Sinica, 20(7), 601-603.
- Xu, S. S., Gao, Z. X., Weng, Z., Du, Z. M., Xu, W. A., Yang, J. S., ... & Chai, X. S. (1995). Efficacy of tablet huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in Alzheimer's disease. Zhongguo yao li xue bao= Acta pharmacologica Sinica, 16(5), 391-395.
- Gao, Y., Gumusel, B., Koves, G., Prasad, A., Hao, Q., Hyman, A., & Lippton, H. (1995). Agmatine: a novel endogenous vasodilator substance.Life sciences, 57(8), PL83-PL86.
- Keynan, O., Mirovsky, Y., Dekel, S., Gilad, V. H., & Gilad, G. M. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Dietary Agmatine Sulfate in Lumbar Disc‐associated Radiculopathy. An Open‐label, Dose‐escalating Study Followed by a Randomized, Double‐blind, Placebo‐controlled Trial. Pain Medicine, 11(3), 356-368.
- Kalman, D. S., Feldman, S., Samson, A., & Krieger, D. R. (2015). A clinical evaluation to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of an inositol-stabilized arginine silicate dietary supplement in healthy adult males. Clinical pharmacology: advances and applications, 7, 103.